The Expanding Universe

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The Expanding Universe Empty The Expanding Universe

Post  Clint on Tue Mar 17, 2009 10:27 am

How did the universe begin?
As we move through this short presentation, we will be identifying universal basics to better understand the laws at play in the answers to the beginning of the universe.

1: The Atom
The atom consists of protons and neutrons gathered together in the central region with electrons circling in various orbits around. Around these central protons and neutrons certain energy regions exist, the innermost region being with less energy, and as we move out, the energy level increases. Why? Consider this, if you were to hold one ball 20cm from the ground, and another 40, which would have the most energy? The force of gravity is acting on both balls, and they are the same size. If you consider gravity to be a spring, pulling each ball toward the centre of the earth, then the further you stretch a spring, the more energy it has. So we can say that the ball, and therefore the electrons, would have more energy as we move away from the centre. Until a point of course, where there energy would have no effect, similar to that of the earth’s atmosphere.
The electrons surrounding each atom, vary in number, but do not control the identity of the atom; an atom can ‘share’ electrons with another, without changing the type of molecule it produces. Atoms that do not have the correct number of protons, or have more than usual, are called isotopes, but these are rare. When an electron is drawn to an atom, the energy region it occupies is determined by the amount of electrons already present in the atom. As all physical systems in the universe tend towards the area of least energy, for example, water is on the lowest point possible, and air is kept above; a heavy gas will fall and a lighter gas will rise; if an object comes to close to a planet; it is pulled in until it is stationary and has no moving force. So the electrons fill up the energy regions from the innermost level to the outermost level. Each energy region has a certain number of electrons it can sustain and as one fills up, the electrons move out in the regions of higher energy. For example, if you were to construct a model of the atom, using a tennis ball and a cricket ball as the neutrons and protons, and a basketball as the electrons, there would only be so many basketball you could fit around the centre before you needed a second ‘layer’ of basketballs. It is the same in the atom.
The term region is used in describing the different energy ‘levels’ because the direct path of an electron is not known but there are a number of probable locations of an electron at any one point. As electrons are moving at the speed of light, no capturing equipment of today is small or fast enough to accurately provide information on the location of the electron. The neutrons have no electrical charge (neutral=neutron), whilst the protons have a positive charge and the electrons a negative charge.

2: Colour and Light
Colour is the physical phenomenon of light or visual perception associated with the various wavelengths in the visible portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. When light hits an atom, the energy from the light causes the electrons to ‘jump’ from an area of low energy to an area of higher energy, as we have just learnt about, giving off an electromagnetic vibration that is the sum of the difference in energy levels. For example, if an electron was to jump from an energy level of 1 to an energy level of two, the vibration given off would not be two, but the difference between what it was and what it now is; one. This vibration then, determines the wavelength of light, hence the colour. Light can also be the visible effect of the electrons deflecting light or absorbing certain frequencies of the light, leaving the visible colour we see.
Different elements consist of different atoms, and different colours of the spectrum, and mix together to form a unique colour associated with that element. For example, gold, silver, and copper each consist of elements that emit light that mixes to form the colour of that particular element.
It is by using this method, that we are able to determine the elementary makeup of stars and planets simply by measuring the emitted light through a spectrometer, a device that breaks light into the colours that produce it. And measure these colour with highly accurate equipment, determining exactly what the planet, or star, is made of.
3: the Doppler Effect
An example of this effect is the sound produced by an automobile as it approaches an observer. The speed that sound travels is close to 1200 feet \per second. As the automobile passes the observer, a drop in frequency is noted. This is due to the sound waves being affected by the speed of the vehicle. The frequency being emitted by the vehicle remains the same, but each time the vehicle emits the next wave crest, it is nearer to the observer than at the time it emitted the previous wave crest, so even though it is emitting a constant frequency, the frequency will be higher. A good example is a runner on a cruise ship. Each stride the runner takes, measure on the track on which he is running, is 1.6 meters. The cruise ship has a constant speed of 20km/h. So the steps of the runner are still 1.6m, but he is travelling 20km faster to an observer off the ship than he is on the track. Imagine each step is a wave crest of light or sound. To an observer not on the ship, the man’s strides, or the wave crests, would be much larger. The Doppler Effect is used in speed measuring devices used by most police forces as a highly accurate way of measuring speeds.
The speed of light is also constant and cannot exceed approximately 184000 miles per second. This does not mean that light cannot travel slower obviously, or we would not have colour, radio waves, gamma, x-ray, infrared or even colour and other varied wavelengths of light. So irrespective of the speed that the object emitting light is travelling, the fastest it can emit light in front of it remains the same. Technology today allows man to travel faster than the speed of sound, but scientists believe it is not possible to travel faster than the speed of sound, as this would cause the traveller to be invisible until the light waves he or she emit, reach the observer. Scientific theory predicts catastrophic consequences if at all possible upon the speed of light being broken, even the reversal of time.
Part of the frequencies of the electromagnetic scale are visible as colours to the naked eye, but the limits of the spectrum go far beyond and below the visible portions of this spectrum.
4. Universal Applications
Imagine a source of light at a constant distance from us, such as a star, emitting waves of light at a constant wavelength. Obviously the wavelength of the waves we receive will be the same as the wavelength at which they are emitted. Suppose now that the source starts moving toward us. When the source emits the next wave crest it will be nearer to us, so the distance between wave crests will be smaller than when the star was stationary. This means that the wavelength of the waves we receive is shorter than when the star was stationary. Correspondingly, if the source is moving away from us, the wavelength of the waves we receive will be longer. In the case of light, therefore, means that stars moving away from us will have their spectra shifted toward the red end of the spectrum (red-shifted) and those moving toward us will have their spectra blue-shifted.
Using these rules astronomers took to the sky, measuring the spectrum of stars and galaxies noting there red or blue shifted spectra. Expecting to see a wide variety of red and blue shifted stars, there were struck to find that most stars were found to be ‘red shifted’, indicating that they were moving away from the observer.
The profanities of these findings support the long standing theory, that the universe had a beginning where all matter was in a single place at a one point in time. Logically, if stars are constantly moving away from us, this would indicate that at some point in time, they were much closer together.
This proof does not mean that we all crawled out of the sea and grew legs, upon which we became monkey and slowly grew brains. It does mean that who or whatever intelligence created the universe, started in a central region. Life is not what is being discussed; rather it is the Beginnings of our Universe.

From the book “A Brief History of Time”, by Steven Hawking states, “The expanding universe theory (big bang), does not rule out the existence of a creator, it merely places limits on when he may have carried the act of creation out.”

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